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CA1673e – Research literature review: Library History

The original article published in Japanese ( )


Current Awareness
No.297 September 20, 2008


Research literature review: Library History


From my perspective, recent library history studies in Japan are considered to have three prominent features as follows: (1) reexamining library history research methodologically, (2) positioning Japan’s postwar library history, and (3) focusing on people. Since the 1990s, the libraries’ foundation of existence has been reexamined as libraries have been required to undergo rapid changes such as changes in library policies, the legal system, and the user structure. The framework of the development process has been reexamined, and postwar history, which is directly linked to the present age, is receiving increasing attention. In addition, human research has become active, such as reviewing the roles of people who actually provided services inside the library during the postwar period. I, the author, understand that this leads to focusing on human history based on a comprehensive interpretation of historical documents and literature.

Now, I would like to examine the results of library history research in the literature published in Japan over the past five years (since around 2002). In particular, I will focus on the activities of the Japan Association of Library and Information History, an organization that specializes in library history. I will mainly look at research about Japan without limiting the type or age of libraries. In addition, the history of libraries compiled by each library and related research in adjacent areas such as bibliography, history, and pedagogy are not included.

1. Reexamining library history research methodologically

Today, when libraries are said to be in the midst of a period of change, contemporary issues such as the pros and cons of publicness, changes in business conditions, and the development of new service principles are being discussed. In the field of library history research, there are attempts to return to the question “what is a library” and reexamine library history research methodologically.

The Japan Association of Library and Information History held a symposium entitled “Retrospect and Prospects of Library Cultural History Research” in September 2002, which marked the 20th anniversary of the inauguration of the former Japan Society for the Study of Library History (1) . In this symposium, ISHII Atsushi looked back on the trends of postwar library history research, claiming that Japan’s library history research finally stood at the starting point when “the method of library history” was published in Toshokan zasshi (The Library Journal) in the 1950s. He also stated that in the latter half of the 1960s, the history research of each library was made based on basic materials, and that the perspective which structurally positions libraries in the educational system began to be seen. Ishii emphasized the attitude of highlighting the essence and ideal form of libraries through history. In addition, one of the panelists, FUJINO Yukio, presented the importance of a comparative perspective in library history, the difficulty of researching it, and the perspective of women’s history.

Another panelist, IWASARU Toshio, focused on periodization that shows how to understand library history, and proposed a periodization of library history that is different from that of general history. Iwasaru critically inherited the periodization theory of TAKEI Gonnai, who wrote “Nihon toshokanshi no houhou” in 1938, and ONO Noriaki, who published Nihon bunkoshi kenkyu (first volume) in 1944. On the other hand, from the perspective of those supporting book culture, he divided history into four eras: the aristocratic library era, the monk (temple) library era, the samurai library era, and the civic library era. In positioning library science as a social science, it is indispensable to explore the essence of the library historically, but in the past, there was little consideration of its theoretical framework, and it was a reflection based on the fact that it used to be merely chronological description. Based on this periodization, Iwasaru published Nihon toshokanshi gaisetsu in 2007, and described the historical background which is commonly seen in individual library events (2) .

After that, KAWAI Hiroshi, who followed the genealogy of library history research in Germany, discussed that the field will expand not only to the library’s histories of development, institution, and movements, but also to the history of theory about libraries (history of library science), and the history of philosophy (history of library philosophy) (3) .Among them, regarding the history of philosophy, he insists on the need to bring in a sociological perspective. It was an attitude of describing the history of library philosophy under so-called “social restraint” in relation to the social structures and situations of libraries, librarians, and users. Kawai argues that while library science strives for objective theoretical clarity, the history of library philosophy involves ambiguity in operation and practice, and library philosophy must be a guiding philosophy for individual librarians to pursue better service practices.

In July 2007, a workshop entitled “What is evidence for library history research?” was held as part of the “The Evidence-Based Approach in Library and Information Science” supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B). At the workshop, the author reported on the general condition of library history research in Japan, introducing expansions in research materials such as oral history, in addition to reconsidering historical recognition (4) .

2. Positioning Japan’s postwar library history

In parallel with these methodological reexaminations of library history research, the momentum to historically evaluate the postwar library service practice, which was promoted in Chusho toshi ni okeru kokyo toshokan no un’ei (also known as the “Chusho report” ) (1963) and Shimin no toshokan (1970), is also increasing. Positioning Japan’s postwar library history came to be attempted by posing a question about the process leading up to the current state of the library.

In 2004, a discussion entitled “What role should public libraries play in modern society?” was held in Toshokan kai (The Library World) Vol. 56, No. 3, and a historical evaluation of Shimin no toshokan was attempted. In addition, in the fall of the same year, a symposium entitled “Reexamination of Postwar Public Library Practice” was hosted by the Japan Association of Library and Information History (5) .

In this symposium, SHIOMI Noboru divided the postwar period into four periods, i.e. the “service search period” of each library, which is the period from the end of the war to the 1950s; the “finding out and sharing period of activity guidelines” (second period), which is the period from the 1960s to the early 1970s when the idea of making library functions (e.g. offering materials at request of people) into reality was generated; the “period of progress in library building” (third period), which is from the latter half of the 1970s to the first half of the 1980s, when the voices of residents became apparent; and the “period of library building under low growth”, the period after the above mentioned period. Among them, through the publication of the Chusho report and Shimin no toshokan, which mark the second and third periods, he appreciated that libraries were positioned as places to guarantee the residents’ independent learning. This resulted from users’ widespread awareness towards libraries since they came to be able to read the library materials at any time by borrowing them in addition to reading them inside libraries.

In 2006, Kokyo toshokan sabis/Undo no rekishi was published (6) (7) . This text covers library history from ancient times to the present in 13 chapters and two volumes, extensively based on previous research and materials. Its periodization classifies the periods into “pre-modern”, which is before the establishment of the new Meiji government, “modern”, which is from the establishment of the new Meiji government until the end of the war, and “present”, which is after August 1945. The literature has the characteristic of putting weight on the modern and present periods, in particular, describing Japanese public library history in chapter 7 and later.

Chapter 9, “The Turning Point of the Library Movement,” describes that the Chusho report was published in 1963 against the backdrop of the operation of mobile libraries and reference services in the 1950s, explaining the process of how it came to be used as a guideline for surmounting the sluggish library situation amid pros and cons. Then, it was discussed that after the operation of the Hino public Library, which promoted the functions of lending and reference services, we reached the time of “the dawn of a new era in which a library has become a place to offer services open to residents and the idea of a library as part of a regional plan was born.” (Volume 2, p93)

Also, Chapter 10, “The Age of Shimin no toshokan“, explains that Shiritsu toshokan no un’ei, the report of the library world, was revised to Shimin no toshokan to include many citizens as readers in addition to the librarians in each region. This was highly evaluated since individual citizens became libraries’ service targets, breaking away from the group-centric principle adopted in the Chusho report. This is good literature for understanding the flow of postwar library history, while taking a cautious stance on historical evaluation of present historical matters. I would also like to add that there is a lot of attention being paid to the relationship between libraries and residents, such as the development of community/household libraries and civic movements.

In addition, in summarizing a series of discussions contained in Toshokan kai, YAMAGUCHI Genjiro said that Shimin no toshokan is the starting point for the development of Japanese public libraries and supports the stable structure, pointing out that it still has a strong influence and normativeness today (8) .

Looking at research on library services individually, the results of child services that were emphasized in the Chusho report and Shimin no toshokan are noteworthy. Jido toshokanshi kenkyukai 50 nenshi (2004), which summarized the development of library services for children from the latter half of the 19th century to present, was published (9) , and in this document, SHIOZAKI Junko examines the development of Japan’s postwar library services for children. Shiozaki identified epoch-making events such as the foundation of the Association of Children’s Libraries (1953), the start of the Hino public library services, and publication of ISHII Momoko’s Kodomo no toshokan (1965) based on literature and statistical surveys. She also classified the postwar period into five periods and clarified the importance of the human network of central figures such as KOGOUCHI Yoshiko through interview surveys (10) . In addition, YOSHIDA Yuko conducted a historical examination of the children’s library movement in the 1960s and 1970s, pointing out the magnitude of the influence of Kodomo no toshokan and its importance as a place for mothers to learn (11) .

Since the latter half of the 1990s, continuous research results focusing on the postwar occupation period have also been published (12) . Two major approaches were attempted, one based on the perspective of clarifying the US library policy toward Japan on top of the conventional Japanese-side prior research using documents related to the General Headquarters Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (GHQ/SCAP), Civil Information and Education Section (CIE) as well as materials held by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and the American Library Association (ALA). Recently, NAKAMURA Yuriko featured the reform of the school library in the postwar period and repeatedly discussed the process of preparing the Gakko toshokan no tebiki, published by the Ministry of Education in 1948, which had a strong influence on the operation of school libraries in later years (13) (14) (15) . In the research, she clarified that the document was prepared by the Japanese editorial committee for “guidance for school library management”, such as FUKAGAWA Tsunenobu, incorporating the wishes of US staff such as school library consultants and library officers. In addition, NEMOTO Akira published three collections of the results of a series of library research during the postwar occupation period subsidized by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (16) , and Jae-soon JO discussed the influence of the United States on South Korea during the same period (17) .

Another approach is research that attempts to examine the reality of library movements immediately after the war through interviews and literature surveys. For example, OKUIZUMI Kazuhisa and OGURO Koji, who discussed the library movement in Kamisato-mura, Shimoina-gun, Nagano Prefecture, clarified that the library was deeply established in the community through the “library liberation movement” which separated a library from a clinic and an activity to revise the library regulations so that the president of a young men’s association will be appointed as the library director, and that young people were actively involved in the library movement as users and operators (18) .

3. Focusing on people

The testimonies of people involved is valuable in revisiting postwar library history. Regarding the CIE Library, which was established under the guidance of the United States during the postwar occupation period, a memoir CIE toshokan wo kaiko shite (2003) was published mainly by staff at the Osaka CIE Library (19) . Based on this, OSHIMA Mari summarized the biographies of 20 female directors of the CIE Library (20) , and the record of BUNGO Reiko, who worked at the American Cultural Center Library from 1948 to 1984, was published (21) . In addition, ISHIKAWA Shigekazu covered the relationship between the movement to revise the School Library Act and educational reform since the 1960s, based on the testimony and literature of KASAHARA Yoshiro, an adviser to the Japan School Library Association (22) .

Research studies focusing on people are active regardless of age or region. There is a need for an attitude of understanding the thoughts and actions of librarians and library related parties in the context of society while developing new historical materials. In 2007, the Japan Association of Library and Information History published Toshokan jinbutsuden (Biography of librarianship: life and achievement of 20 people who promoted libraries), a collection of critical biographies of 20 people from Japan and abroad related to library development (23) . In the Japanese librarian edition, in addition to four articles on modern prewar librarians, such as SANO Tomosaburo, who was the director of the Akita Prefectural Akita Library, and MATSUMOTO Kiichi, who was the director of the Imperial Library and the chief director of the Japan Library Association from the end of the Taisho era, six people who were active from the prewar to postwar periods are featured. A variety of people were compiled in the material such as MORI Kiyoshi, who is famous as the creator of Nippon Decimal Classification and played an active role in the National Diet Library and the Japan Library Association in the postwar period, SHICHI Kakuro, who conducted reference work in Kobe City Library, and SHIMAO Toshio, who became the first director of the Amami Branch of the Kagoshima Prefectural Library as the “Literati Library Director”. Also, in the foreign librarian edition, 10 people, mainly in Europe and the United States, are covered.

In 2007, studies of British librarians by Fujino Yukio and FUJINO Hiroyuki were published (24) . This is a summary of about 150 librarians recorded in all 60 volumes of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004), and 34 people who were considered to be important were selected from them, outlining them with references to prior bibliographies.

In addition to monographs, the following studies discuss people in individual research. At first, SUZUKI Hiromune summarized the achievements of KANAMORI Tokujiro as the director general of the National Diet Library, examining the background of the inauguration, recruitment of senior staff, public relations activities for the general public, a feud with the deputy director general NAKAI Masakazu, and his resignation due to the “Shunjyuukai Incident”, based on the minutes of the House of Representatives’ library steering committee (25) .

Andrew Weltheimer featured ASANO Shichinosuke, a first-generation immigrant, and discussed how Asano established a Japanese language library in the Topaz internment camp during the wartime period. This article, which discusses the significance of a cultural space where Japanese Americans can freely read and talk, presents a new perspective on wars and libraries (26) .

TSUMURA Mitsuhiro summarized Mori Kiyoshi’s achievements at the old Tottori Prefectural Library, which operated independently under the guidance of KONO Kanji, the chief librarian, discussing how Mori formed the librarians’ foundation through publishing the staff magazine Fuguruma at the library (27) . YONEI Katsuichiro summarized the activities of Mori Kiyoshi at the Central China Railway Library during the war, and he argued that Mori aimed for advanced library operation through active library activities (28) .

FUKUNAGA Yoshiomi covered NAKATA Kunizo’s reading instruction practice in Ishikawa prefecture, examined Nakata’s claim that books were educators in self-education rather than a means of education, and argued against a commonly accepted theory that Nakata actively supported the politics led by the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (29) . Fukunaga also examined the library philosophy of NORISUGI Kazu, who promoted social education as the chief popular education officer of the Ministry of Education, based on his main book, Shakai Kyoiku no Kenkyu (1923) (30) .

At the West Japan Academy for Library Science, SANO Tomosaburo was featured in a seminar entitled “Librarians in Western Japan: Their characters 4” in 2006, and Sano’s achievements, theory of library services for children, and analysis of library-related foreign books collected by Sano were discussed (31) .

In prewar research on people, TOMOTANI Junichi discussed “colonial librarians” (described later), and featured KOZU Hanzo, who established the Miyoshi Women’s Library in Miyoshi-cho, Tokushima prefecture in the Taisho era, discussing Kozu’s view of women’s education and libraries in careful writing, in addition to referring to Miyoshi-cho’s natural features (32) . He positioned the establishment of the Women’s Library and its management philosophy based on the idea of being a “good wife and wise mother” as the trend of Taisho liberal education.

MIYAZAKI Makiko featured KATO Hanako, the first Japanese student to graduate as a regular student at a library school in the United States, and explained the process of her arrival in the United States, graduation from the school and return to Japan (33) . In addition, NAKABAYASHI Takaaki reexamined TANAKA Fujimaro’s view of the libraries, which had an influence on the administration of the Ministry of Education in the early Meiji era. Nakabayashi also appreciated the achievements of YAMASHITA Nobutsune, who contributed to the establishment of the legal deposit system for the National Diet Library during the postwar period (34) (35) .

4. Other

4.1 Japan

In terms of research trends by era, there are many studies on modern Japan. As far as books and academic periodicals in the field of library science are concerned, the number of premodern research studies is by no means large, but OGAWA Toru discussed that the Shooku, which was found during the dismantling and repair work of the pedestal of the Shaka Sanzon-zo statue in Horyu-ji Kon-do, was established during the Suiko dynasty or the Tenmu dynasty in the 7th century (36) . In addition, TAKAKURA Kazunori analyzed the composition of the Takeguchi family’s collection, and considered that TAKEGAWA Chikusai’s focus on the local people was the driving force behind the establishment of the public library, reexamining the Izawa library in research on modern book collectors (37) .

As for research on the latter half of the 19th century, in the field of university library history, TAKANO Akira discussed library activities prior to the establishment of the Imperial University Library based on unorganized documents held by the University of Tokyo Library System, such as Gan’yo ruisan. According to Takano, the library was a place for storing textbooks (duplicates) to be lent to students at the Tokyo Kaisei School, the precursor of the University of Tokyo, and along with the establishment of the law library, the importance of the library became recognized, equipping a library in each department in the faculty association. Takano discussed that the library used to be one of the administrative departments but had significance as an independent institution (38) . All eight volumes of Meiji shoki tokyo daigaku toshokan zosho mokuroku (2003), supervised by Takano, are helpful for understanding (39) .

In research on the beginning of the 20th century, under the theme of the actual situation of the Komaki Kyoritsu Futsu Toshokan in Ueda, Nagano Prefecture, SHINOHARA Yumiko summarized the purpose and background of the establishment, its operation/usage status, and its book organization method based on interviews and literature surveys (40) . Oguro Koji, who featured the Chiyo Library in Chiyo, Shimoina-gun, Nagano Prefecture, critically discussed the process that initially the library was allowed to be managed independently by young people in the village, but around the time of the revision of the Library Decree, the Nagano Library strengthened a crackdown on free thought, and the Chiyo library came to be commended as an “excellent library” (41) . Furthermore, Kita no bunko, supervised by FUJISHIMA Takashi, who compiled the Hokkaido toshokanshi shimbun shiryou shusei (2003) (42) , energetically covered the history of library activities in the Hokkaido and Tohoku regions, and released research results such as SAKAMOTO Ryuzo’s consideration of the Sorachi Kyoikukai Toshokan (Sorachi Educational Library) (43) .

TAKANASHI Akira described libraries in Taisho 1 (1912) with a new perspective of “the library as a department store”, and further discussed the relationship between “art exhibition and library”, utilizing the Rodin exhibition, held at Kyoto Library in the same year, as a subject (44) (45) . Miyazaki Makiko focused on women’s rooms in libraries in the prewar period from the perspective of women’s history (46) .

On the other hand, in recent years, there is research on libraries during wartime, and in particular, articles about libraries in the Manchuria region in China have been actively published. Among them, Tomotani Junichi discusses OSA Miyogo, who provided American-style library services at the Fushun Public Library and accomplished achievements as a “colonial librarian” at South Manchuria Railway’s Libraries. In addition, Tomotani clearly described the process of the Manchurian settlement reading movement, which derailed due to the failure of training leaders, with a focus on the activities of Nakata Kunizo. Furthermore, he has published steady research results, such as summarizing the seizure of “anti-Japanese books” by the Imperial Japanese Army during the war (47) (48) (49) (50) . Oguro Koji also focused on the library management of schools run by the South Manchuria Railway, and discussed activities of the children’s reading study group in the South Manchuria Railway, which examined and recommended children’s books and conducted theoretical research (51) .

KATO Kazuo et al. summarize the activities of colonial libraries run by Japan in Asian countries (Taiwan, Manchuria, Korea, China, and southern regions) along with a chronology. Although it is noted that this is not a research book with the character of academic research, it has a consistent intent to critically reexamine the historical responsibility of library activities before and during the war (52) . One of the authors, TOJO Fuminori, who claimed the library industry’s war responsibility in his other books, strongly criticized that library related parties, mainly the members of the Japan Library Association, used national ceremonies such as the enthronement ceremonies of Emperor Taisho and Showa as well as the 2600th Anniversary Celebration to enhance the library policy by borrowing the prestige of the imperial family before and during war. He argued that the library industry’s failure in securing continuous document costs and staff resources resulted in instilling the idea that libraries are monuments rather than a function in the administrative agencies and the public (53) .

OKAMURA Keiji focused on book collections and listed the collection/document catalogs compiled/published by institutions that held Japanese materials, including the Manchukuo Library. In addition, he summarized the transition process of documents left in China after the war among the documents collected in Manchukuo in a chronological table (54) .

WADA Atsuhiko discussed the historical process of Japanese books collected in US university libraries and research institutions. Wada conducted interviews and examined acceptance records at more than 50 libraries and archives, including the Library of Congress, and raised awareness of the people and organizations involved. In addition to how to build a Japanese book collection during the prewar period and how to make a collection such as the Gordon W. Prange Collection during the postwar occupation period, he discussed Japanese language education in the United States, and developed “literacy history”, a new academic field (55) .

Turning to individual library services, HIRATA Mitsuko et al. gave an overview of children’s library services such as the Osaka Prefectural Library and Osaka Municipal Library in the prewar period, as well as introduced service examples at the CIE Library and the American Expo during the postwar period (56) . NOGUCHI Takenori published a series of historical research on services for people with disabilities, discussing the introduction of libraries in schools for deaf persons in the first half of the 20th century and the development of library services in schools for blind persons (in the postwar period) (57) (58) (59) (60) .

4.2 Overseas

In this last part, I would like to mention some research on overseas libraries.

In research on US library history, translation studies have been energetically presented by the Kyoto Institute for Library and Information Science Study Group led by KAWASAKI Yoshitaka. In addition, Kawasaki addressed the institutional discrimination against library use by the Black minority in the United States, which continued especially in the southern states until the 1960s, discussing that libraries provided services premised on racial segregation under the guidance of white people and Black librarians also accepted this. The publication of an International Research Associates’ research report, “Access to Public Libraries” (1963), clarified that institutional (de jure) “direct discrimination” and virtual (de facto) “indirect discrimination” were spread across various states in the United States. Kawasaki detailed how the library industry eliminated de jure discrimination after the report publication, while examining the process of preparing the report, the content of the report, and discussions after the report’s publication in detail (61) (62) (63) . Kawasaki, who had released historical discussions on the freedom of libraries, summarized the research results from the 1990s to 2006 and supplemented those results, publishing Amerika koritsu toshokan/ jinshu kakuri/ amerika toshokan kyokai: Rinen to genjitsu tono kakushitsu (2006) (64) .

Yoshida Yuko comprehensively discussed US public library theory with the keyword “media”. Yoshida precisely examined the library philosophy of US library philosophers such as William S. Learned, who developed the theory of adult education in the 1920s, and Robert D. Leigh, who reported on public library research in 1947, as well as analyzed those theories while positioning them in the context of social conditions, peripheral studies, and library practice. She argued that the idea of “liberal communication theory” adopted as a democratic culture device in the American society had a great influence on the theory of public libraries (65) . Yoshida also argues that public libraries were positioned in the US media strategy and functioned as an audiovisual medium as well as printed matter through an analysis of the wartime information service conducted by ALA and the United States Office of War Information (OWI) during the war (66) .

In addition, NAKAYAMA Manari summarized the introduction of the county library system and the mobile library service in Maryland, USA at the beginning of the 20th century, and explained the actual operation of bookwagons, or horse-drawn carriages with bookshelves, using loan statistics (67) (68) .

Regarding US school library history, SUZUKI Mamoru considered the process of preparing “The Principles of School Library Service” (1941), discussed the awareness of cooperation between schools and public libraries in those days, and clarified that the role of the board of education became more important on the report compared to at the stage of the manuscript (69) . In addition, Noguchi Takenori featured the school library of Perkins School for the Blind, which was a pioneer in blind school education in the United States, discussing the school’s development from its establishment (1832) to the 1930s based on its annual report and the works of KAWAMOTO Unosuke, who introduced the school to Japan (70) . HATADA Hidemasa discussed the positioning of the school district library system, which is considered a precursor of public libraries in the United States, in school library history (71) .

Regarding German library history, Kawai Hiroshi focused on public library movement that began in Germany from the end of the 19th century and on Gottlieb Fritz, its leader, examining how the movement made libraries, which were initially conceived as places for offering popular books to middle- and lower-class citizens, eventually becoming places for pursuing valuable book collections and providing user guidance as an educational facility for the general public. At the same time, he precisely discussed Johannes Tews, who strived to spread libraries to the lower class (72) (73) .

AKAHOSHI Takako summarized her previous writings on the establishment of French modern libraries, focusing on the ideas of Leopold V. Delisle, the director of the National Library of Paris, France, and Eugenu Morel, who criticized Delisle (74) . She also published books on children’s library history and reevaluated the book review activities of Anne Carroll Moore, who established the working flow of children’s library services (75) .

*Notes are not being translated and remain in Japanese language.

(1) 図書館文化史研究の回顧と展望: 日本図書館文化史研究会20周年記念シンポジウム(2002年9月15日 アルカディア市ヶ谷). 図書館文化史研究. 2003, (20), p. 1-63.

(2) 岩猿敏生. 日本図書館史概説. 日外アソシエーツ(発行), 紀伊国屋書店(発売), 2007, 248p.

(3) 河井弘志. [特別講演]図書館史と図書館思想史と図書館学史: 日本図書館文化史研究会2004年度研究集会・総会(2004年9月11日 京都精華大学). 図書館文化史研究. 2005, (22), p. 1-27.

(4) “発表Ⅱ(三浦太郎氏)”. エビデンスベーストアプローチによる図書館情報学研究の確立 第5回ワークショップ 「図書館史研究にとってエビデンスとは何か?」., (参照 2008-08-01).

(5) [シンポジウム]戦後公共図書館実践の再検証: 日本図書館文化史研究会2004年度研究集会・総会(2004年9月11日 京都精華大学). 図書館文化史研究. 2005, (22), p. 29-72.

(6) 小川徹ほか. 公共図書館サービス・運動の歴史 1: そのルーツから戦後にかけて. 日本図書館協会, 2006, 266p., (JLA図書館実践シリーズ, 4).

(7) 小川徹ほか. 公共図書館サービス・運動の歴史 2: 戦後の出発から現在まで. 日本図書館協会, 2006, 276p., (JLA図書館実践シリーズ, 5).

(8) 山口源治郎. 『市民の図書館』の歴史的評価をめぐって: 誌上討論「現代社会において公立図書館の果たす役割は何か」を振り返る. 図書館界. 2008, 59(5), p. 308-311.

(9) 児童図書館研究会. 児童図書館のあゆみ: 児童図書館研究会50年史. 教育史料出版会, 2004, 438p.

(10) 汐﨑順子. 児童サービスの歴史: 戦後日本の公立図書館における児童サービスの発展. 創元社, 2007, 213p.

(11) 吉田右子. 1960年代から1970年代の子ども文庫運動の再検討. 日本図書館情報学会誌. 2004, 50(3), p. 103-111.

(12) 研究動向については、三浦太郎. “日本の戦後図書館史: 戦後占領期を中心に”. 図書館・情報学研究入門. 三田図書館・情報学会編. 勁草書房, 2005, p. 138-141. を参照。

(13) 中村百合子. 戦後日本における学校図書館改革の着手: 1945-47. 日本図書館情報学会誌. 2002, 48(4), p. 147-165.

(14) 中村百合子. 『学校図書館の手引』編集における日米関係者の協働. 日本図書館情報学会誌. 2004, 50(4), p. 142-158.

(15) 中村百合子. 『学校図書館の手引』にみる戦後初期の学校図書館論の形成. 日本図書館情報学会誌. 2005, 51(3), p. 105-124.

(16) 根本彰ほか. 戦後教育文化政策における図書館政策の位置づけに関する歴史的研究: 平成14 年度・15 年度科学研究費補助金 (基盤研究C(2)) 研究成果報告書. 東京大学大学院教育学研究科図書館情報学研究室. 2005, 研究課題番号14510267, 127p., (占領期図書館研究, 3).

(17) 曺在順. 1950年代韓国における図書館学教育の導入背景: 「ピーボディ・プロジェクト」の展開を中心に. 日本図書館情報学会誌. 2004, 50(2), p. 43-57.

(18) 奥泉和久ほか. 戦後復興期における上郷図書館の民主化運動をめぐって. 図書館界. 2003, 55(3), p. 158-167.

(19) 回顧録編集委員会. CIE図書館を回顧して. 2003, 44枚.

(20) 大島真理. CIE図書館の女性図書館員たち. 図書館界. 2004, 56(4), p. 224-235.

(21) 豊後レイコ. あるライブラリアンの記録: レファレンス・CIE・アメリカンセンター・司書講習. 女性図書館職研究会. 2008, 54p.

(22) 石川賀一. 戦後日本の教育改革と学校図書館の制度化: 笠原良郎氏の学校図書館運動を中心に(1). 図書館学. 2005, (86), p. 17-24.

(23) 日本図書館文化史研究会編. 図書館人物伝: 図書館を育てた20人の功績と生涯. 日外アソシエーツ, 2007, 457p., (日外選書fontana).

(24) 藤野幸雄ほか. 図書館を育てた人々: イギリス篇. 日本図書館協会, 2007, 285p., (JLA図書館実践シリーズ, 8).

(25) 鈴木宏宗. 国立国会図書館長としての金森徳次郎. 図書館文化史研究. 2004, (21), p. 57-76.

(26) ウエルトハイマー, アンドリュー. アメリカの強制収容所内での文化空間の創造: 浅野七之助とトパーズ日本語図書館1943-1945. 日本図書館情報学会誌. 2008, 54(1), p. 1-15.

(27) 津村光洋. 森清と草創期の鳥取県立鳥取図書館: 1931~1934年を中心に. 図書館文化史研究. 2007, (24), p. 75-95.

(28) 米井勝一郎. [研究ノート]華中鉄道図書館: 森清(もり・きよし)の上海時代. 図書館文化史研究. 2006, (23), p. 87-107.

(29) 福永義臣. 図書館社会教育の実践: 中田邦造の読書指導と自己教育論. 中国書店. 2006, 257p., (九州国際大学教養学会叢書, 2).

(30) 福永義臣. 乗杉嘉壽の研究: セルフ・メード・マンを中心に. 図書館学. 2007, (91), p. 20-34.

(31) 升井卓彌ほか. 西日本図書館学会セミナー(‘06.03.18): 西日本の図書館人: その群像(4) 佐野友三郎の図書館経営論:いま、我々はなにを学ぶべきか. 図書館学. 2006, (88), p. 27-61.

(32) 鞆谷純一. 三好高等女学校「婦人図書館」: 学校図書館の先覚者・高津半造. 図書館文化史研究. 2006, (23), p. 53-85.

(33) 宮崎真紀子. [研究ノート]日本最初の女性図書館学留学生. 図書館文化史研究. 2007, (24), p. 121-138.

(34) 中林隆明. [研究ノート]明治初期の図書館行政と田中不二麿: 岩倉米欧使節団との関連において. [東洋英和女学院大学]人文・社会科学論集. 2004, (22), p. 77-95.

(35) 中林隆明. [研究ノート]国立国会図書館と戦後納本制度の成立: 納本図書発足に貢献した山下信庸(やました・のぶつね 1906~1999)を中心として. [東洋英和女学院大学]人文・社会科学論集. 2007, (25), p. 141-153.

(36) 小川徹. 日本最古の図書館「書屋」について. 図書館文化史研究. 2002, (19), p. 33-45.

(37) 高倉一紀. 射和文庫の蔵書構築と納本: 近世蒐書文化論の試み(1). 図書館文化史研究. 2007, (24), p. 37-74.

(38) 高野彰. 帝国大学図書館成立の研究. ゆまに書房. 2006, 470p.

(39) 高野彰監修・編. 明治初期東京大学図書館蔵書目録. ゆまに書房. 2003, 全8巻., (書誌書目シリーズ, 64).

(40) 篠原由美子. [研究ノート]小牧共立普通図書館(長野県上田市)設立の事情とその実態. 図書館文化史研究. 2003, (20), p. 79-107.

(41) 小黒浩司. 「優良図書館」の誕生: 長野県下伊那郡千代村立千代図書館の歴史. 図書館界. 2004, 55(5), p. 234-245.

(42) 藤島隆編. 北海道図書館史新聞資料集成: 明治・大正期篇. 北海道出版企画センター. 2003, 364p.

(43) 坂本龍三. 小特集, 北海道における教育会図書館: 空知教育会図書館: その歴史と活動について. 北の文庫. 2004, (37), p. 1-16.

(44) 高梨章. ライヴァルは百貨店: 1912年の図書館. 図書館文化史研究. 2004, (21), p. 27-56.

(45) 高梨章. [研究ノート]呼物はロダン: 美術の中の京都図書館. 図書館文化史研究. 2007, (24), p. 139-167.

(46) 宮崎真紀子. 戦前期の図書館における婦人室について: 読書する女性を図書館はどう迎えたか. 図書館界. 2001, 53(4), p. 434-441.

(47) 鞆谷純一. 満鉄図書館と大佐三四五. 日本大学大学院総合社会情報研究科紀要. 2005, (5), p. 88-99., (参照 2008-08-01).

(48) 鞆谷純一. 日中戦争下・北京における抗日図書の接収: 中華民国新民会の活動を中心に. 図書館界. 2006, 57(5), p. 312-322.

(49) 鞆谷純一. [研究ノート]満洲開拓地読書運動: 中田邦造を中心に. 図書館文化史研究. 2007, (24), p. 97-119.

(50) 鞆谷純一. 東京帝国大学附属図書館の略奪図書: 中華民国新民会所管資料の搬入と返還. 図書館界. 2008, 60(1), p. 2-12.

(51) 小黒浩司. 満鉄児童読物研究会の活動: 満鉄学校図書館史の一断面. 図書館界. 2005, 57(1), p. 2-12.

(52) 加藤一夫ほか. 日本の植民地図書館: アジアにおける日本近代図書館史. 社会評論社. 2005, 404p.

(53) 東條文規. 図書館の政治学. 青弓社. 2006, 250p., (青弓社ライブラリー, 44).

(54) 岡村敬二. 「満洲国」資料集積機関概観. 不二出版. 2004, 256p.

(55) 和田敦彦. 書物の日米関係: リテラシー史に向けて. 新曜社. 2007, 406p.

(56) 平田満子ほか. [第45回研究大会グループ研究発表]大阪における児童図書館サービスの史的概観の試み. 図書館界. 2004, 56(2), p. 128-137.

(57) 野口武悟. 盲学校図書館における地域の視覚障害者に対する図書館サービスの構想と展開: 学校図書館法成立前後から1960年代の検討を通して. 日本図書館情報学会誌. 2003, 49(4), p. 156-171.

(58) 野口武悟. 川本宇之介の盲唖学校図書館に関する理論と実践. 学校図書館学研究. 2005, (7), p. 17-26.

(59) 野口武悟ほか. わが国の聾学校における学校図書館の導入とその背景: 1920年代~1950年代を中心に. 心身障害学研究. 2005, (29), p. 35-49.

(60) 野口武悟. 戦前期日本における障害者サービスの展開: 障害者自身の図書館サービスをめぐる運動と実践を中心に. 図書館文化史研究. 2005, (22), p. 73-91.

(61) 川崎良孝. アラバマ州公立図書館サービス部長エミリー・リードをめぐる黒人問題(1959年). 図書館文化史研究. 2002, (19), p. 85-109.

(62) 川崎良孝. 黒人への公立図書館サービスの転機:『公立図書館へのアクセス』(1963年)の意義(1). 図書館界. 2006, 57(5), p. 294-310.

(63) 川崎良孝. 黒人への公立図書館サービスの転機:『公立図書館へのアクセス』(1963年)の意義(2). 図書館界. 2006, 57(6), p. 358-372.

(64) 川崎良孝. アメリカ公立図書館・人種隔離・アメリカ図書館協会: 理念と現実との確執. 京都大学図書館情報学研究会, 日本図書館協会(発売). 2006, 397p.

(65) 吉田右子. メディアとしての図書館: アメリカ公共図書館論の展開. 日本図書館協会. 2004, 400p.

(66) 吉田右子. コミュニティ・メディアセンターとしての公共図書館: アメリカ図書館協会と戦時情報局の戦時情報政策. 日本図書館情報学会誌. 2002, 48(3), p. 121-137.

(67) 中山愛理. [研究ノート]米国メリーランド州におけるカウンティ・ライブラリー・システム導入と館外サービスの展開(1898-1916): ワシントン・カウンティの事例から. 図書館文化史研究. 2006, (23), p. 109-123.

(68) 中山愛理. 米国ウィスコンシン州における巡回文庫導入とその発展. [埼玉純真女子短期大学]研究紀要. 2007, (23), p. 61-68.

(69) 鈴木守. NEA・ALA合同委員会報告書(1941)における学校図書館サービスの原則: 学校と公共図書館との関係に関する原則を中心に. 日本図書館情報学会誌. 2007, 53(2), p. 90-102.

(70) 野口武悟. アメリカ・パーキンス盲学校における学校図書館の成立と展開: 学校創立から1930年代までの検討を中心に. 日本図書館情報学会誌. 2007, 53(1), p. 1-16.

(71) 畑田秀将. 日本におけるアメリカ図書館史研究の動向と課題: 公立図書館と学校図書館の成立過程. 図書館学. 2004, (85), p. 45-52.

(72) 河井弘志. ヴァイマール時代の教養図書館: Gottlieb Fritzの公共図書館思想. 図書館文化史研究. 2002, (19), p. 47-83.

(73) 河井弘志. J. テーフスの民衆図書館論: 民衆教育と社会民主主義のあいだの思想. 日本図書館情報学会誌. 2002, 47(3), p. 97-112.

(74) 赤星隆子. フランス近代図書館の成立. 理想社. 2002, 245p.

(75) 赤星隆子. 児童図書館の誕生. 理想社. 2007, 287p.

Written by MIURA Taro
Meiji University
Translated by the Branch Libraries and Cooperation Division,
Administrative Department, National Diet Library